The missing images farther below are at this time MIA.

Earliest Chicago Maps™
carljweber.com
Carl J. Weber © 2017

 

The Jolliet Map: Authenticity Reconsidered


jolliet brown map

 

Now archived in the John Carter Brown Map Collection, this Jolliet map was unknown before 1879. In that year, it was discovered into history as an authentic Louis Jolliet long-lost map. It was confidently published by Gabriel Gravier,in 1880, with his fifty page text known as:

Étude sur Une Carte Inconnue (Study on an Unknown Map).


Gravier subtitled it, La première dressée par Louis Joliet dans 1674 apres son exploration du Mississipi avec P. Jacques Marquette (The first, i.e., map, drawn by Louis Joliet in 1674 after his exploration of the Mississippi with P. Jacques Marquette).

The most substantial attempts to provide a historical context for the map were by:

Gabriel Gravier, see above, 1880.
Gravier understood the map to have been drawn by Jolliet, himself, in 1674.

Ernest Gagnon, in Louis Jolliet, 1902.
Gagnon understood the map to have been drawn, also, by Jolliet, himself, in 1674.

Jean Delanglez, in Mid-America, "The Jolliet Lost Map of the Mississippi", 1946. Delanglez understood the map to have been drawn by a Jolliet acquaintance in 1674 from a Jolliet original, under Jolliet's supervision.

Lucien Campeau, in Les Cahiers des dix, "Les Cartes relatives à la découverte du Mississipi par le P. Jacques Marquette et Louis Jolliet", in 1992. Campeau understood the map to have been drawn also by Jolliet, himself, in 1675, with the help of a newly arrived Marquette map from the western missions.


The Reconsideration

The more plausible provenance for the Jolliet/Brown is that it is a product of the mid-1800s, arguably created from the 1674 Hughes Randin Map, and from the 1674/1675 Camel Maps, seen below.

The 1674 Hughes Randin is, like the above Jolliet map, also in the John Carter Brown Library.

 

1674 Randin link

(Details on the link are highly legible.)

.Hughes Randin Map

 

 

1674 Camel Map 1 link

This and the following map, Camel Map 2, are here grouped as a pair, their association with one another growing from the obvious similarty of numerous elements of nomenclature and geography they share.

Past scholars have, for the most part, negleted mentionion of Camel Map 1 at all. When they have mentioned it, they have not associeted it with Camel Map 2. This later they have variously attributed to Jolliet, to Jean Baptist Louis Franquelin, or both.

They are here called Camel Maps 1 and 2, owing to the camels on them, which Jolliet claimed he saw. Among other unusual sightings, Jolliet reported ostriches, giraffes, and a monster with its wrap-around tail. The monster is at the same latitude as the Piasa Bird, the well known painting on the side of a rock in the vicinity of Alton, Illinois.

Camel Map 2 has an expanded to-the-north and expanded to-the-east geography over Camel Map 1. The basic scheme, particularly, of the Mississippi, is the same.

The 1682 date on the map is someone's guessword. This is a rendering of an original that seems to be lost. This version of the map existed originally with a cursive English written sidebar on each side. link

 

.1674 Camel Map 1

 

 

1675 Camel Map 2 link

(Details on the link are highly legible.)

.1675 CamelMap2

 

The image was rendered under Francis Parkman in the mid-1800s, is available in the Harvard Map Cllection, and, as can be seen in the upper right corner, is "Parkman 2."  The map that this one is base on is at the moment not available in a legible file. The originals on which Camel Maps 1 and 2 were based were ostensibly drafted by Franqueln, with modest informational input by Jolliet.

 

Evidence

Nomenclature Comparison

Of the 63 names on the Randin Map, 62 of them are, with some modifications of spelling, taken directly from the Randin Map. The one word that is not taken is "Monsters."

Randin/Jolliet Names Compared. link


 

Geography

The V-Shape for Hudson Bay

For Hudson Bay, the Jolliet Map, right, borrowed V-Shape from Camel Map 2, left.

No other maps that have been observed in this research have this characteristc shape for Hudson Bay. Camel Map 1 does not extend its coverage

image image
Camel Map 2 Jolliet Map

 

Wisconsin River Area

image image
Randin Map Jolliet Map

 

Calligraphy Emulations

The well experienced calligraphy of Randin on the left, seen in attempted emulation on Jolliet Map on right.

image image
image image
Calligraphy, Randin Calligraphy, Jolliet

 

Schematized Design of Mississippi and Tributaries 

image image
Mississippi Schematic of Camel Map 1 Mississippi Schematic of Jolliet

The general feel of the rivers' layout have much in common. Recall, all the names on the Jolliet (left), are taken from the Randin Map. It is not difficult to conclude that although the Camels Maps and the Randin Map provided data for the Jolliet Map, the Camel Maps where made independently of the Randin Map.

 

 

 


Henry Harrisse the Randin Map, some time after 1856, was no longer in its archived location. The map had, that year (as Harrisse later learned) had been catalogued in the Canadian grandes archives. Harrisse visited the archive in 1871. There was no item for the 1856 Randin Map catalogue entry.


The Randin map was, in my plausible construction of the sequence, stolen from the archive, it being, it seems, a good candidate for a forged Jolliet map.

..


image

Gabriel Gravier and Henry Harrisse introduced, respectively, the Jolliet/Brown and Randin Maps in the latter 19th Century.


image



image

THE JOLLIET/BROWN MAP TITLE PAGE

Introduced to history in the Gabriel Gravier book, An Unknown Map, 1880

HENRY HARRISSE, FROM WIKIPEDIA.

Through Henry Harrisse, in 1876, the Randin map was introduced into cartographic history, Harrisse had acquired it sometime in the prior five years for the Barlow Collection. It was later archived at John Carter Brown University.


In the early to mid-1800s, the population of the Midwest had been growing at an accelerated pace. After a few generations had settled in, a not unexpected shared natural curiosity arose: “what was going on in the earliest French days — the late 1600s?”

Leading up to about 1850, although the supply of 17th documents was in scant supply, nonetheless leading historians — among others, Jared Sparks, George Bancroft, and

 

Plagiarism Evidence


 

THE TOP IS JOLLIET/BROWN, THE BOTTOM IS RANDIN. THE REITERATION, TOP AND BOTTOM, OF THE WISCONSIN RIVER AREA, AS SHOWN, IS A ONE-DEPENDANT-ON-THE- OTHER RELATIONSHIP.

JOLLIET, WISCONSIN RIVER


 


 


 


image

IN THE FIRST PAIR, THE 1678 FRANQUELIN (TOP), A UNIQUE COASTLINE “V” IS SEEN REPRODUCED IN THE JOLLIET (BOTTOM). THIS “V” SEEMS NOT TO APPEAR ON ANY CONTEMPORANEOUS MAPS BUT THESE TWO. IN THE LAST TWO PAIR, THE FLORID SCRIPT OF THE RANDIN (TOP) IS REPRESENTED BELOW IN CARICATURE.


THIS SCRIBAL ERROR IS A FORCEFUL AND PERSUASIVE SUPPORT THE JOLLIET/BROWN MAP IS NOT AUTHENTIC, AND THAT IT HEAVILY PLAGIARIZED THE RANDIN MAP.

image

image

INTENT ON MAKING A COUNTERFEIT 17TH CENTURY MAP, PURPORTEDLY MADE BY JOLLIET HIMSELF, THE FORGER, IN COPYING THE WORD “MECHIGAMEA” FROM THE RANDIN MAP, CORRECTLY COPIED THE BEGINNING “AN-." HOWEVER, THIS WAS A SCRIBAL ERROR THAT HAD BEEN COPIED FROM THE RANDIN MAP. NO OTHER MAPS OF THE PERIOD HAVE SCRIBAL ERROR “AN-“ INSTEAD OF “M-."

THE WORD, METCHIGAMEA, AS SEEN ON NUMEROUS OTHER MAPS, INVARIABLY STARTS WITH AN “M."


SCRIBAL ERROR PLAGIARIZED FROM RANDIN TO JOLLIET.

THE “THREE LAKES” MOTIF, SEEN AT THE EXTREME NORTH END OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER, IS SEEN ON BOTH THE JOLLIET, LEFT, AND THE RANDIN, RIGHT.


image image image

JOLLIET, THREE LAKES

RANDIN, THREE LAKES


image

THE LEFT IMAGE OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY IS FROM JOLLIET, THE RIGHT IMAGE IS FROM FRANQUELIN — THE LINE WEIGHT AND PARTICULARLY THE SCHEMATIC DESIGN OF THE WATERWAYS STRONGLY ARGUE FOR A DERIVATIVE RELATIONSHIP.


 

JOLLIET, MISSISSIPPI VALLEY RANDIN, MISSISSIPPI VALLEY


The argument that the Jolliet/Brown map is counterfeit, pretending to be a 17th century document, but not actually being one, seems devastatingly clear from the above comparisons, comparisons showing a seemingly irrefutable physical-features derivative reliance.

Below, last page, is a spreadsheet with the Randin Map’s Mississippi- related nomenclature (63 names), all found on the Jolliet/Brown, except for “Monsters.” (That’s another story.) Wouldn’t the names duplicated in themselves be more than adequate to expose the derivative nature of the jolliet/brown map forgery?

EXTENT OF JOLLIET’S NAVIGATION


image

THE EXTENT OF JOLLIET’S NAVIGATION WAS NOT ALL THAT MUCH. THE NUMEROUS MAPS, SAID BY ONE PERSON OR ANOTHER TO BE LINKED TO JOLLIET, ARE MAPS THAT DEPICT A VERY LARGE SCOPE OF GEOGRAPHY, THE IMPLICATION BEING JOLLIET HAD BEEN THERE, OR JOLLIET AND MARQUETTE HAD BEEN THERE.


afterthoughts


As I mentioned at the outset, I happened across the strong proof of plagiarism for creating the Jolliet/Brown Map. This was while putting materials together for my upcoming “Jolliet’s Lost Map” study. Comparatively speaking, the Lost Map enterprise is much broader in scope and needful of foundational knowledge than this fake Jolliet map.

Incidentally, the “Lost Map” has never been seen in publication nor appeared on the Internet.

But my conclusion about the Jolliet/Brown Map (the most well known map attributed to Jolliet), has a sensational appeal to a much wider interest base, notwithstanding the Lost Map clears up no few historical puzzles, and is a much more significant and in-depth discovery for the cartography of earliest Chicago and the Mid-West.

When you’ve seen my evidence as presented above, you might ask — because it seems so very, one might say, childishly obvious — why hasn’t anybody grasped this analysis before?

SPREAD SHEET: PROPER NAMES AND OTHER TEXT FEATURES



All tribal, place, and other feature-name words appearing on the Randin Map (except for “Monster”) were plagiarized onto the Jolliet/Brown Map (some time between1856 and 1879). The plagiarist doubtless never entertained the thought that the Randin Map would resurface and 138 years later be set side-by-side to expose the fraud.

This Jolliet/Brown data is necessarily terse and compelling. It shows the map is a fake. Jean Delanglez and Lucien Campeau have used the Jolliet Map as a mainstay in their masterly historical imaginings — which turn out to be just that. They need to fall a notch or two from academic grace.



The Randin Map (1674), left side in each column, was plagiarized by the draftsman for the Jolliet / Brown Map, except for the omitted “Monsters.”


image image image

 

 

Go to Maps
These are 31 scrolling maps farther below.

email
For translation help.

        

Video, Carl J. Weber, music by Ray Lynch.

        

Four maps discovered in this research as inauthentic. Scroll to them below, and/or link to high resolution images.

1674 Marquette Map (19th century fake) link
1674 Jolliet/Brown (19th century fake) link
1675 Anonymous (shamefully faked dating) link
1683 Raffeix (17th century plagiarized) link

Two maps never before published that fill out the understanding of the sequence of Heartland discoveries by LaSalle and Jolliet.

1674 Jolliet/Weber link
1674 Randin, North America link

Two maps reidentified

1683 (not 1685) Minet Map, in fact, LaSalle's map link
1674 Ayer 48 Anonymous. Not a "tracing" as per Smith, 1927, but the original sent to France in  1674 link

 

Begin Maps

 

 

1650 Sanson, North America link

 

1656 Sanson New Mexico and Florida link

 

1670 Lake Superior, uncertain, link

 

1670 Galinee, Great Lakes link

 

1674 North America, Sanson-Jaillot link

 

1674 Marquette Map (Fake) link

 

1674 Jolliet/Weber link

 

1674 Randin, North America link

 

1674 Randin link


1674 Jolliet/Brown (1880s Fake) link

 

1674 Ayer 48 Anonymous link

 

1675 Ayer 48 Bernou link

 

1675 Ayer 48 Final, North America link

 

1674 Camel Map 1 link

 

1675 Camel Map 2 link

 

1675 Anonymous Fake link

 

1681 Thevenot, Mississippi Valley link

 

1683 Minet Map (here, Weber Enhanced) link

 

1683 Raffeix, not authentic link

 

1683 Hennepin, North America link


1683 Bernou, North America link

 

1684 Franquelin, North America link

 

 

1686 Franquelin, North America link

 

1688 Franquelin, North America link

 

1688 Coronelli link

 

1688 Coronelli Gore link

 

1691 LeClerq, North America link

 

1698 Hennepin, New World link

 

1700 Codex Canadiensis link

 

1700 Lisle


1543 DeSoto link

 

Ellingtone Stone

 

1474 Toscanelli

 

Summarization of Tosconelli below from bigthink:

Many thanks to Roland Ottewell, who scanned this map from 'A Literary and Historical Atlas of America', probably published before 1920.


The Florentine mathematician, astronomer and cosmographer Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli (1397-1482) is probably best remembered for his proposal in 1474 to the Portuguese court of a scheme to sail west as a shortcut to reach the fabled Spice Islands in the east.

Toscanelli never made it across the ocean, but his proposal did inspire Columbus, who took Toscanelli's map with him on his first transatlantic voyage in 1492.


Cathay as a European name for China derives from Marco Polo, who used it for northern China. Only in the 19th century was the usage in English of Cathay eclipsed by the word 'China'. Russian still uses the word – there's still an area of Moscow called Kitaigorod, 'Chinatown'.

 

Here is that video again, which is,

A video summary of maps of the period

with the music of Ray Lynch.

 

 

These are medium file-size full maps from my folder.

1650-1700 Slideshow. Sorry, blank after 1 minute.

 

 

Maps in this Study

in thumbnails

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earliest Chicago Maps

The Chicago Word

 

 

First record Marquette's name in France. Correspondence. Claude Bernou's letter with general questions for Governor La Barre in Canada.

http://www.earliestchicagomaps.com/images/imagesTextdocs/ECMearliestarquetteMention.png

 

 

http://earliestchicagomaps.com/images/imagesTEXTdocs/ECMLaFrontenacie.png

 

La Frontenacie

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type to enter text

Randin Jolliet 2 Columns